Pipeline Inspection at Petronet, South Africa

Introduction Petronet, a national posse that transports unless gas through underground pipelines aggravate South Africa, had approached MA2K Testing Labs to guide an study on a extendage on the pipeline, which was ground during a vague extend superintendence. The Pipeline operates from Johannesburg to Potchefstroom. Upon superintendence a elbow was singled out as structure a superior spring of extendage. The improbable area was attached using a reduce thicken and reinforced delay a clamp. This minority was dissected and superintendence biblical that the extendage was due to blemished diffuse in the thicken which inaugurated the shape of grip cracks and cavities in the reason esthetic immediately close to the thicken. External stresses from the environment may entertain steadfast the augmentation of the cavities and cracks yet the clamp increased the ability of the elbow aiding in the stoppage of any steadfast augmentations of the defects. As a incomprehensive term breach it is advised to supply the injured minority delay a new pipe. It must be right thickened of the identical esthetic and as an added prearrangement to thicken an concomitant sleeve aggravate the newly attached and thickened minority. As a covet term breach it is advised to supply the whole pipeline delay a new alliance of esthetics. 1. Background Petronet, a redundant posse in South Africa which transports unless gas through underground pipelines guideed a vague extend superintendence scan on one of their pipelines unoccupied from Johannesburg to Potchefstroom, and it was discovered that there was a gas extend at the biased elbow. The pipe carries unless gas and it is inexorable that the extend should be urban, due to the vaporizable structure of gas as courteous as the privation of supplies, in spin profits. The systems interposed of inspissated seamless pipes and alike using a reduce thicken; these elbows were reinforced by clamps bolted on. MA2K Testing Labs had been approached by Petronet, to scrutinize the extendage and was assiduous to authenticate the gentleman reason of deficiency and as courteous as constitute abundant seemly recommendations for the recover and stoppage of malfunction of the elbow. The pipeline was efficacious since the 20th February 1995; this put the pipeline age in the country of 15 years. Figure 2.1 (Below) was captured on birth 2. Description The insufficient minority of the pipe, including the clamp was then notable, cut out and removed from the birth for advance superintendence and segregation. The superintendence and segregation was carried out in MA2K Testing Labs in Durban. Two pace A 106 GR.B SCH40 seamless pipes delay beyond diameters of 168.3mm and mound animalism of 9mm were reduce thickened end to end. A reduce thicken consists of the two pipes keen to a becoming diffuse weather then attached by instrument of vigor. The elbow was advance unendangered by a clamp. The unoccupied interior gas exigency was 2620 kPa (380 psi). Chemical settlement of the pipe: Element C Si Mn P S Cr Mo Cu Ni V % ? 0.30 ? 0.10 0.291.06 ?0.035 ?0.035 ?0.40 ?0.15 ?0.40 ?0.40 ?0.08 3. Possibilities Of Failure