Parenting- the process of raising and nurturing children in a family Caring- the process of looking after the needs and wellbeing of another person due to their age, illness or disability Biological parents- the parent who has provided the genetic material, either sperm or an ovum, to create a foetus Pregnancy Planned- involves a strategic choice on when to parent. There are physical, emotional and economic impacts that result from this decision Unplanned- may result from poor knowledge about contraception, the fertility cycle or failure with contraception such as a condom tearing IVF and GIFT
In-vitro fertilisation •Occurs outside the body •Drug treatment is used to stimulate the maturation and number of ova •Egg follicles are monitored through ultrasound •Eggs are collected under general anaesthetic •Fresh sperm sample is obtained •Egg and sperm is prepared and cultured, combined and then fertilisation takes place •Following microscopic examination, viable embryos are transferred back into the uterus •Once implanted, pregnancy has occurred •Spare eggs are frozen for the future •Success depends on age, viability of sperm and level of expertise Gamete intra-fallopian transfer Occurs inside female body •Drug treatment is used to stimulate the maturation and number of ova •Egg follicles are monitored via ultrasound •Eggs are collected under local anaesthetic •Eggs are combined with fresh sperm sample •They are returned to the fallopian tubes where fertilisation may occur •Once fertilisation occurs, embryo implants in uterus and pregnancy is monitored •Fertilisation occurs inside the body •Much more successful Social parents- individuals with a parenting responsibility towards a child whom they do not share a genetic relationship with.
Social implications are the positive and negative effects on an individual or group that occurs as a result of an action or choice made either by the individual, themself or by another person or group Legal implications are the positive and negative legal consequences or commitments that occurs as a result of an action or choice made b an individual or group FASS Fostering- an alternative living arrangement for children whose parents are temporarily unable to care for them in their family home Legal implications Children and young persons (care and protection Act) 1998 (NSW) •Any person fostering children who is not related to them msut have a license to foster issued by the Department of Family and Community Services •Foster carers must consult with the DCS about various parenting issues such as type of school the child will attend and faith practices •The foster cannot make medical decisions •The foster parents may be compensated for deliberate damage to child Social implications Carers must encourage contact with the young person’s birth family and accept that he or she will probably return to their birth family •carers and their family may have mixed feelings about this especially if the young person has become part of their family •when allocating foster placements, families are sometimes split up as all children cannot be accommodated and stay together •foster children may been to have multiple placement changes such as schools and new siblings influencing their satisfaction of emotional, social and intellectual needs •30% of foster children have been abused by biological family, affecting how they meet new people as they feel angry and abandoned •problems between biological family and foster child may result in a restraining order by fostering family Adoption- the process by which the legal responsibility of parenting a child is given to a family mother than the than the biological family Legal implications Regulated by the legislation, including Adoption Act 2000 (NSW) and Family Law Act 1975 (cth) •All legal rights and responsibilities are transferred to the adoptive parents •Change in parenting is permanent; birth parents lose all rights to the child. However they may maintain the right of information and contact, if permitted by the Family Court •If the child is older than 12 they must consent the adoption. If the person is from an ATSI background, they must receive counselling about their customs and culture •Step parents must be married or in a de-facto relationship or a child whose lived with them for 2 years •Needs to be assurance from governing bodies such as DOCS that all aspects of the wellbeing of the child can be met Social implications Societies changing attitudes have resulted in fewer adoptions, the use of the contraceptive pill and development of birth technologies •Family relationships change, which can be significant as the child ages •The decision to tell a child they are adopted may be distressing •May cause different emotions for adopted child as they have the right to know their origins •The child must overcome feelings of being rejected by birth parents. May impact on sense of identity and self esteem •No knowledge of child’s medical history which can cause problems in diagnosing illness or most appropriate medical treatment •Family and community acceptance, example if the child looks different to parents the adoptive relationship is apparent •Child should have the opportunity to maintain cultural heritage •Acceptance of adoptive child if parents have biological children Step-parenting- when a man or woman marries or forms a de-facto relationship with a partner who has a child or children from a previous relationship Legal implications A step parent has no legal responsibilities towards the child •A step parent who has acted as a parent to a child for a long time, and is now being divorced from the biological parents, may have visitation rights if a judge decides its in the Childs best interest •In the event of the death of a step-parent the rights of the step child are different from those of a biological child in regard to inheritance, child support and making decisions •If a child is adopted by step-parents, rights to inheritance from biological parent are lost Social implications •Community perception holds that an intact original nuclear family is superior as blended or step may be seen as deficient •There is often a ower struggle between the child/ren and step parent, which may lead to issues for their relationship and the family •Conflict can occur between the children and step parent and between step children from both partners. Primary relationships and responsibilities can become blurred •Old family traditions may be changes. This can be difficult for all •Partners may have different visions of family life and parenting styles that need to be reviewed, discussed and adjusted •Poor relationships with step parents are recognised as a significant factor in causing young people to leave home and decrease in academic performance and self esteem and depression
Surrogacy- an arrangement made between a couple who cannot have a baby and a woman who gets pregnant on the couple’s behalf. The child is handed to the couple after delivery Legal implications •It is legally a grey area as it is neither prohibited nor encouraged •Very specific criteria needs to be established for both parties based on an honour agreement that is not legally binding •Payment cannot be made •Adoption process needs to be successfully undertaken •Egg and sperm must be from commissioning couple •Commercial couple must be able to prove medical reasons as to why they can’t biologically conceive and that they’ve been trying to conceive for 3 years with unprotected intercourse, and still cant conceive Social implications The surrogate mother may have an ongoing attachment to the baby after birth •Emotional pain may be experienced by the surrogate mother and her family by giving up the child •If the surrogate mother goes back on the agreement, there may be disappointment and animosity between parties •Community acceptance may be mixed as surrogacy isn’t a widely accepted practice •Surrogacy is very costly and may affect the social parents economic status •Surrogacy is a long, exhaustive process •Social parents may change their mind, leaving the baby with the surrogate mother whom may not have adequate resources or family support •The woman’s body is not an object, it’s a form of prostitution •It’s unethical and unmoral Carer relationships Carers are people who look after the needs and wellbeing of another person due to their age, illness and/or disability.
Carers may be paid or unpaid. Many circumstances may lead to a person requiring care. Some circumstances are planned and may have been anticipated. Example: a planned pregnancy, adoption or fostering, grand parenting, looking after an ageing parent. Unplanned circumstances are unexpected and thus afford a few preparations in the short term such as: a unplanned pregnancy, grand parenting, a health problem such as operation failures, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, AIDS, multiple sclerosis or cancer, an accident, birth abnormalities and unexpected age deterioration. Some of the implications of caring will relate to management of: was there time to prepare or not?
What is the expected financial expenditure>> how will it impact on the satisfaction of needs and overall wellbeing? What will be, and who will take on, the roles and responsibilities associated with caring? Voluntary They are unpaid. They are usually family members such as parents, partners, brothers, sisters, friends or children. They provide care and support to children or adults who have disability, mental health problems, chronic condition or a temporary illness. Some are eligible for government benefits, while others are employed in their usual job and undertake caring responsibilities after work and on weekends. The burden of caring can affect the satisfaction on physical, intellectual, social and emotional needs. Paid
They take on the role of caring as a form of employment and therefore receive financial payment. Type of paid carerDescription Family day careProvides home-based care up to five children in a family setting Nanny Provides home-based care to children in their family home Doctor Provides medical advice, treatment and assistance to those in care Foster carerIs licensed to provide care in their own family home Teacher Has a duty of care and primarily encourages learning skills, knowledge and behaviours; plays a valuable tole in socialisation Nurse Provides medical assistance in community centres, homes, hospitals and nursing homes Palliative carerProvides assistance to people who are terminally ill, as well as support to family members
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