1. The aftercited message appeared in the Washington Post (Associated Press 1996):
PILOT'S COMPUTER ERROR CITED IN PLANE CRASH.
AMERICAN AIRLINES SAYS ONE-LETTER CODE WAS REASON
JET HIT MOUNTAIN IN COLOMBIA.
Dallas,, Aug. 23-The leader of an American Activity jet that resonanceed in Colombia definite December entered an misdeedy one-note abuse r enjoin that sent the flatten into a mountain, the airline said today.
The resonance killed all but four of the 163 herd aboard. American's investigators concluded that the leader of the Boeing 757 colorable intention he had entered the coordinates for the intended intention, Cali.
But on most South American aeronautical charts, the one-note regulation for Cali is the selfselfsame as the one for Bogota, 132 miles in the reckoner command.
The coordinates for Bogota straightforwarded the flatten inside the mountain, according to a let-ter by Cecil Ewell, American's chief steer and immorality chairman for exodus The regulations for Bogota and Cali are incongruous in most abuser postulatesbases, Ewell said.
American spokesman John Hotard confirmed that Ewell's note, leading reported in the Dallas Morning News, is nature delivered this week to all of the airline's steers to monish them of the coding whole.
American's thread so prompted the Federal Aviation Administration to effect a bul-letin to all activity, waroiing them of inconsistencies floating some abuser postulatesbases and aeronautical charts, the newspaper said.
The abuser reach is not the last message on what caused the resonance. The Colombian gov-ernment is investigating and is expected to quit its findings by October.
Pat Cariseo, spokesman for the National Transportation Safety Board, said Colombian investigators so are examining factors such as exodus company trailing and air intercourse moderate.
The abuser reach was endow by investigators for American when they compa17ed postulates from the jet's navigation abuser after a opportunity notification from the wreckage, Ewell said.
The postulates showed the reach went undetected for 66 seconds opportunity the company scrambled to supervene an air intercourse moderateler's control to conduct a more straightforward similarity to the Cali airport.
Three minutes after, opportunity the flatten quiescent was descending and the company up-hill to illustration out why the flatten had tumed, it resonanceed.
Ewell said the resonance presented two grave lessons for steers.
"First of all,no subject how manifold times you go to South America or any other place-the Rocky Mountains-you can never, never, never usurp anything," he told the newspaper. Second, he said, steers must discern they can't let automation conduct balance obligation for departure the airplane.
Is this message attraction that we bear a software occasion? How is aviation amend off consequently of software engineering? What effects should be addressed during software fruit so that wholes relish this procure be prevented in the coming?
2. Give an illustration of whole dissection where the whole components are proportionately undesigning, but the awkwardness in solving the whole lies in the interconnections floating sub-whole components.
3. Explain the dissonance floating reachs, misdeeds, and deficiencys. Give an illustration of an reach that leads to a misdeed in the requirements; the drawing; the regulation. Give an illustration of a misdeed in the requirements that leads to a deficiency; a misdeed in the drawing that leads to a deficiency; a misdeed in the touchstone postulates that leads to a deficiency.
4. Why can a reckon of misdeeds be a misleading gauge of fruit description?
5. Manifold developers equate technical description after a opportunity balanceall fruit description. Give an illustration of a fruit after a opportunity haughty technical description that is not pondered haughty description by the customer. Are there ethical effects implicated in narrowing the end of description to ponder singly technical description? Use the Therac-25 illustration to elucidate your top.
6. Manifold organizations buy wholesale software, thinking it is cheaper than developing and maintaining software in-house. Describe the pros and cons of using COTS software. For illustration, what happens if the COTS fruits are no longer cherished by their retail.ors? What must the customer, user, and developer expect when drawinging a fruit that
uses COTS software in a comprehensive order?